North Carolina LLC Operating Agreement | A Comprehensive Guide

Steve Bennett
Business Formation Expert  |   Fact Checked by Editorial Team
Last updated: 
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North Carolina Operating Agreement

When forming a Limited Liability Company (LLC) in North Carolina, one of the most critical steps is creating and executing an LLC Operating Agreement. This legally binding document outlines your LLC’s ownership, management, and operational procedures, ensuring that your business runs smoothly and is protected from potential disputes and legal issues. Although only sometimes required by state law, having a well-drafted operating agreement is essential for an LLC. This article will explore the content and importance of an Operating Agreement in North Carolina and discuss its key components.

Webinarcare Editorial Team will help you understand the process of having an operating agreement for your North Carolina business. You must be guided by all the factors gathered in this article.

What is an Operating Agreement?

An operating agreement is a legally binding document that outlines a limited liability company‘s ownership structure, management, and operational procedures (LLC). It governs the internal workings of the LLC and establishes the rights, responsibilities, and obligations of its members (owners) and managers.

This includes details such as rules, regulations, and provisions related to the operation of the LLC. The Operating Agreement serves as a guide for dealing with disagreements, bringing in new members, and managing various situations that may arise while doing business. It delivers clarity and ensures smooth functioning while providing legal protection to businesses.

Although not always required by state law, having a well-drafted operating agreement is essential for an LLC. It helps prevent potential disputes among members, ensures smoother business operations, and provides a clear framework for making decisions and resolving issues. It also helps to establish limited liability protection for the members by demonstrating that the LLC is a separate legal entity with its own rules and procedures.

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North Carolina LLC Operating Agreement Content

An operating agreement is a legal document detailing the LLC’s organizational structure and operational procedures. It includes forming the LLC, members and ownership, distribution of profit and losses, management structure, meetings and voting procedure, limitation of liability and indemnification, dissolving North Carolina business, dispute resolution, and amendments and modification.

Article I: Formation of the LLC

The first step in creating an LLC Operating Agreement is to outline the basic information about your LLC, such as:

  • Name of the LLC: Your LLC’s name must include the words “Limited Liability Company” or the abbreviation “LLC” or “L.L.C.” and comply with the North Carolina LLC naming requirements.
  • Principal Office Address: This is where your LLC’s primary business activities will be conducted.
  • Purpose of the LLC: This section should describe the primary purpose of your LLC and the types of business activities it will engage in.
  • Registered Agent Information: Your Registered Agent is a person or entity designated to receive legal documents on behalf of your LLC. The Registered Agent must have a physical street address in North Carolina. It’s essential to choose a reliable and responsible North Carolina Registered Agent, as failure to receive and respond to legal documents can have serious consequences for you to start a business in North Carolina

You can serve as your Registered Agent, appoint a friend or family member, or hire the Best North Carolina Registered Agent Services. We reviewed some of the services for you to check out if you still don’t have one.

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Article II: Members and Ownership

This section deals with identifying all the members of the LLC and their ownership percentages. It includes details like names, addresses, and contributions of each member. Details about how increases and decreases in membership are also covered in this section.

  • Initial Members: The names and addresses of each initial member should be listed, along with their respective ownership interests.
  • Ownership Interests: This section should detail each member’s ownership interest percentage.
  • Capital Contributions: Each member’s initial capital contribution to the LLC should be documented, along with any additional contributions that may be required.
  • Additional Members: The agreement should outline the process for admitting new members to the LLC and the rights and responsibilities of these new members.
  • Transfer of Membership Interests: The operating agreement should contain provisions governing the transfer of membership interests, including transfer restrictions and the right of first refusal for existing members.
  • Withdrawal of Members: The process and consequences for members who wish to withdraw from the LLC should be clearly defined. In North Carolina, there is a definite guideline on How to Remove a Member from your North Carolina LLC. 

Article III: Distribution of Profits and Losses

This article explains how the LLC profits and losses will be distributed among the members. It can be based on the ownership percentages or a different agreement stipulated by the members. It lays out the process for distribution and any restrictions on those distributions.

  • Allocation of Profits and Losses: The agreement should detail how profits and losses will be allocated among the members, typically based on their own interests.
  • Distributions to Members: The process for distributing profits to members should be outlined, including the timing and manner of distributions.

Article IV: Management Structure

Your LLC Operating Agreement should outline the management structure of your business. This includes

Member-Managed vs. Manager-Managed: You must decide whether your LLC will be managed by its members or appointed managers. This decision will impact the roles and responsibilities of each party.

A Member-Managed LLC is a type of limited liability company (LLC) where the management and day-to-day operations of the business are handled by its members (owners) directly. In a Member-Managed LLC, each member has the authority to make decisions and take actions on behalf of the company, such as entering into contracts, hiring employees, and managing the finances.

This management structure contrasts with a Manager-Managed LLC, where the members appoint one or more managers to oversee the business operations. In a Manager-Managed LLC, the appointed managers have the authority to make decisions and act on behalf of the company. In contrast, the members typically have a more passive role, focusing on high-level decision-making and strategic planning.

Roles and Responsibilities of Members/Managers: The agreement should define the roles and responsibilities of each member or manager, including their duties, decision-making authority, and any limitations on their powers.

Article V: Meetings and Voting Procedures

This article outlines the rules for conducting meetings and voting procedures. It specifies the quorum required for decision-making, how votes are counted, and how members are notified about meetings. It also includes information about special meetings and emergency decisions.

  • Voting Rights and Decision-Making Process: The agreement should outline each member or manager’s voting rights and decision-making for various business matters.
  • Meetings and Notice Requirements: The operating agreement should specify the frequency of meetings, the process for calling special meetings, and the notice requirements for each type of meeting.

Article VI: Limitation of Liability and Indemnification

To protect the personal assets of your LLC’s members and managers, your operating agreement in North Carolina should address the following:

  • Liability of Members/Managers: The agreement should limit the liability of members and managers for the debts and obligations of the LLC, following North Carolina law.
  • Indemnification Provisions: The operating agreement should include provisions for indemnifying members and managers for actions taken on behalf of the LLC, as long as those actions are within the scope of their duties and do not involve gross negligence or willful misconduct.
  • Insurance Requirements: The agreement should specify any insurance requirements for your LLC, such as liability or property insurance. Small business insurance helps safeguard your business from financial losses, legal claims, and other unforeseen events. This protection allows entrepreneurs to focus on growing and sustaining their businesses within the North Carolina economy.

You may check out the Best Small Business Insurance in North Carolina to learn more about business insurance.

Article VII: Record Keeping and Financial Reporting

This article provides details about the record-keeping and financial auditing procedures. It outlines the importance of keeping accurate and comprehensive records of an LLC’s financial transactions. It also specifies the frequency of financial reporting and distribution to the members.

  • Accounting and Recordkeeping: The operating agreement should outline your North Carolina LLC’s accounting methods and recordkeeping requirements. Effective financial management is important for the success of your North Carolina LLC. Establish a reliable accounting system to track income, expenses, and tax obligations. You can manage your finances using spreadsheets, accounting software, or becoming a CPA in North Carolina.
  • Fiscal Year: The agreement should specify the fiscal year for your LLC, which may be either a calendar year or any 12-month period.
  • Tax Treatment and Filing Requirements: The agreement should specify your LLC’s tax treatment and any required filings with the North Carolina tax authorities. You should include the filing of the North Carolina Articles of Organization, annual fees, and other associated fees that need to be filed.

For the initial and final cost for forming your North Carolina LLC, look up the LLC Cost in North Carolina for additional information. 

Article VIII: Dissolution and Winding Up

This section outlines the circumstances under which the LLC may be dissolved, such as a unanimous decision by members, legal issues, bankruptcy, or achieving its purpose. It also includes information about how the LLC’s assets will be liquidated and debts paid upon dissolution.

Events Triggering Dissolution: The agreement should list the events that will trigger the dissolution of your LLC, such as the death or withdrawal of a member, a unanimous vote of the members, or a court order. 

Some common events include:

  • A unanimous vote of the members to dissolve the business.
  • The death, resignation, or withdrawal of a member unless the remaining members agree to continue the business.
  • The expiration of a specified period or the completion of a specific purpose, as outlined in the operating agreement.
  • A court order mandating the dissolution of the LLC.

Winding Up Process: The operating agreement should outline the process for winding up the affairs of the LLC, which typically involves:

  • Settling the company’s outstanding debts and obligations.
  • Liquidating the company’s assets.
  • Resolving any pending legal disputes.
  • Preparing and filing final tax returns.

Distribution of Assets: The operating agreement should specify how the LLC’s remaining assets will be distributed among the members upon dissolution, typically in proportion to their ownership interests.

Certificate of Cancellation: After the winding-up process is completed, the LLC may be required to file a certificate of cancellation or articles of dissolution with the North Carolina Secretary of State to dissolve the company and remove it from its records formally. 

Article IX: Dispute Resolution

This article provides the protocol for handling any disputes arising between LLC members. It can include stipulations for mediation or arbitration in case of any conflicts. The agreement should include a process for resolving member disputes, such as mediation or arbitration.

Article X: Amendments and Modifications

Your LLC Operating Agreement in North Carolina should include a process for making amendments and modifications, such as:

  • Process for Amending the Operating Agreement: The agreement should outline the process for proposing, considering, and approving amendments to the operating agreement.
  • Required Approval for Amendments: The agreement should specify the percentage of member approval required to amend the operating agreement.

Once your LLC Operating Agreement has been drafted, it should be executed by the initial members or managers and adopted by any additional members who join the LLC.

Role of Registered Agent in LLC Operating Agreement

A Registered Agent is a person or entity designated to receive legal documents and official correspondence on behalf of an LLC. While the primary role of a Registered Agent is to maintain a reliable point of contact for legal matters, some registered agent service providers also offer additional services, such as creating an operating agreement for your LLC. Below are some advantages of having a Registered Agent create an operating agreement for your business:

  • Expertise: A Registered Agent specializing in LLC Formation Services often has extensive knowledge and experience drafting operating agreements. They are familiar with the requirements and best practices for creating a comprehensive and legally compliant operating agreement, which can help protect your business interests and minimize potential disputes among members.
  • State-Specific Requirements: A Registered Agent offering operating agreement services is well-versed in state-specific laws and regulations governing LLCs. They can ensure that your operating agreement complies with the specific requirements of the state in which your LLC is formed, including mandatory provisions and filing requirements.
  • Time-Saving: Drafting an operating agreement in North Carolina can be complex and time-consuming, especially for business owners unfamiliar with legal terminology and procedures. By delegating this task to a Registered Agent, you can save time and focus on other crucial aspects of your business.
  • Customization: A Registered Agent with experience creating operating agreements can tailor the document to meet your business’s unique needs and circumstances. They can help you address specific management structures, financial arrangements, and other critical aspects of your LLC that may not be covered in a generic operating agreement template.
  • Ongoing Support: The Registered Agent services provide ongoing support and guidance in maintaining and updating your operating agreement as your business grows and evolves. This can help ensure that your operating agreement remains relevant and compliant with changing laws and regulations.

While there are advantages to having a Registered Agent create an operating agreement for your LLC, it is essential to carefully review and understand the terms of the agreement before signing. Additionally, it is a good idea to consult with legal and tax professionals to ensure that the operating agreement aligns with your business goals and complies with all applicable laws and regulations.

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FAQs

What is an LLC Operating Agreement in North Carolina?
An LLC Operating Agreement is a legal document that outlines the operating procedures of a Limited Liability Company (LLC) in North Carolina.
Is an LLC Operating Agreement required in North Carolina?
While it is not required by law, it is highly recommended that LLCs in North Carolina have an Operating Agreement.
Can the Operating Agreement override North Carolina laws?
The Operating Agreement can override some default state laws, but not all. Certain statutory requirements and limitations set by North Carolina law must still be followed.
Is the LLC Operating Agreement in North Carolina legally binding?
Yes, an LLC Operating Agreement is legally binding in North Carolina once signed by all parties.
Can an LLC Operating Agreement be amended in North Carolina?
Yes, an LLC Operating Agreement can be amended in North Carolina with the unanimous consent of all members.
Do NC LLCs need to file an Operating Agreement with the state?
No, there is no requirement to file the Operating Agreement with the state of North Carolina.
Can an LLC in North Carolina have multiple Operating Agreements?
An LLC can have multiple Operating Agreements, but they should be consistent with each other.
Is there a difference between an LLC bylaws and an Operating Agreement in North Carolina?
Yes, bylaws are more commonly associated with corporations, while Operating Agreements are specific to LLCs in North Carolina.
Who can draft an LLC Operating Agreement in North Carolina?
An attorney can draft an LLC Operating Agreement in North Carolina, but it is possible to create one on your own or through online services.
Who needs to sign the LLC Operating Agreement in North Carolina?
All members of the LLC in North Carolina need to sign the Operating Agreement.
Can the LLC Operating Agreement be signed electronically in North Carolina?
Yes, North Carolina allows for electronic signatures on legal documents like an LLC Operating Agreement.
Can an LLC exist without an Operating Agreement in North Carolina?
Yes, an LLC can technically exist without an Operating Agreement, but it is not recommended.
What happens if an LLC does not have an Operating Agreement in North Carolina?
By default, the state’s default LLC laws in North Carolina will be applied.
Can North Carolina LLCs with one member still have an Operating Agreement?
Yes, even single-member LLCs in North Carolina can have an Operating Agreement.
Can the Operating Agreement outline member compensation in North Carolina?
Yes, an Operating Agreement can outline member compensation in North Carolina.
Can the Operating Agreement provide for buyouts and dissolution of the LLC in North Carolina?
Yes, an Operating Agreement can provide for buyouts and dissolution of the LLC in NC.
Are there any required clauses for an LLC Operating Agreement in North Carolina?
No, there are no required clauses for an LLC Operating Agreement in North Carolina.
Can an LLC Operating Agreement provide for two classes of members in North Carolina?
Yes, an LLC Operating Agreement can provide for two classes of members in North Carolina.
Must an LLC Operating Agreement explicitly lay out ownership percentages of members in North Carolina?
While it is not required, it is highly recommended that an LLC Operating Agreement in North Carolina does lay out ownership percentages of members.
Are members of the LLC in North Carolina required to sign an Operating Agreement every year?
No, members are not required to sign an Operating Agreement every year in North Carolina.
What happens if a provision in the Operating Agreement goes against North Carolina law?
If a provision in the Operating Agreement goes against North Carolina law, the default North Carolina law will be in enforce.
Can an LLC Operating Agreement preempt other agreements the LLC has entered into in North Carolina?
It is possible for an Operating Agreement to preempt other agreements, but it is up to the terms established in the Operating Agreement.
Can the Operating Agreement waive the right to an attorney if the LLC is sued in North Carolina?
No, the Operating Agreement cannot waive the right to an attorney in the case that the LLC is sued in North Carolina.
Is a North Carolina LLC legally obligated to follow the provisions outlined in its Operating Agreement?
Yes, a North Carolina LLC is legally obligated to follow the provisions outlined in its Operating Agreement.
Can members of an LLC in North Carolina change the Operating Agreement without unanimous consent?
No, members cannot change an Operating Agreement in North Carolina without unanimous consent.
What happens if a change in the North Carolina law contradicts with the Operating Agreement?
In the case of new North Carolina laws that contradict an Operating Agreement, it’s with the agreement that’s modified to fit the new law.
Is it beneficial to have a provision for mediation or arbitration of disputes in an LLC Operating Agreement in North Carolina?
Yes, having a provision for mediation or arbitration of disputes may significantly benefit an LLC in North Carolina.
Can the Operating Agreement give the LLC the power to admit and expel members in North Carolina?
Yes, an Operating Agreement can include provisions to admit and expel members of the LLC in North Carolina.
Can the Operating Agreement be changed after a lawsuit is filed against an LLC in North Carolina?
Yes, it is possible for the Operating Agreement to be changed after a lawsuit has been filed against the LLC in North Carolina with the unanimous consent of all members.
What is an LLC operating agreement?
An LLC operating agreement is a legal document that outlines the ownership and operating procedures of an LLC.
Does North Carolina require LLCs to have an operating agreement?
No, North Carolina does not require LLCs to have an operating agreement.
Can an LLC operating agreement be oral in North Carolina?
No, an LLC operating agreement must be in writing in North Carolina.
What should be included in an LLC operating agreement in North Carolina?
An LLC operating agreement in North Carolina should include the LLC’s name, purpose, members’ contributions, allocation of profits and losses, management structure, voting rights, and dissolution provisions.
Can an LLC operating agreement be changed in North Carolina?
Yes, an LLC operating agreement can be changed in North Carolina, but the changes must be approved by the members.
Do all members of an LLC have to sign the operating agreement in North Carolina?
Yes, all members of an LLC must sign the operating agreement in North Carolina.
Can a member of an LLC also be an employee in North Carolina?
Yes, a member of an LLC can also be an employee in North Carolina.
Can an LLC be a foreign LLC doing business in North Carolina?
Yes, an LLC can be a foreign LLC doing business in North Carolina, but it must register with the state.
How many members are required to form an LLC in North Carolina?
One or more members are required to form an LLC in North Carolina.
What is the minimum age requirement to form an LLC in North Carolina?
There is no minimum age requirement to form an LLC in North Carolina.
Can an LLC have a registered agent who is not a North Carolina resident?
Yes, an LLC can have a registered agent who is not a North Carolina resident, but they must have a physical address in North Carolina.
Can an LLC have a PO Box as its address in North Carolina?
No, an LLC cannot have a PO Box as its address in North Carolina.
Is North Carolina a community property state for LLCs?
No, North Carolina is not a community property state for LLCs.
Can an LLC have an unlimited number of members in North Carolina?
Yes, an LLC can have an unlimited number of members in North Carolina.
Can an LLC be formed for a nonprofit purpose in North Carolina?
Yes, an LLC can be formed for a nonprofit purpose in North Carolina.
Can a single-member LLC be taxed as an S corporation in North Carolina?
Yes, a single-member LLC can be taxed as an S corporation in North Carolina.
Is an LLC required to have a separate bank account in North Carolina?
Yes, an LLC is required to have a separate bank account in North Carolina.
Can an LLC operating agreement contain clauses for mandatory arbitration in North Carolina?
Yes, an LLC operating agreement can contain clauses for mandatory arbitration in North Carolina.
Can an LLC provide fringe benefits to its members in North Carolina?
Yes, an LLC can provide fringe benefits to its members in North Carolina.
Can an LLC be formed as a series LLC in North Carolina?
No, North Carolina has no series LLC statute or provision.
Can an LLC dissolve on the occurrence of specific events in North Carolina?
Yes, an LLC can dissolve on the occurrence of specific events in North Carolina as specified in the operating agreement.
What is the minimum number of managers required for an LLC in North Carolina?
There is no minimum number of managers required for an LLC in North Carolina.
Can a manager of an LLC be a member of the LLC in North Carolina?
Yes, a manager of an LLC can also be a member of the LLC in North Carolina.
Can an LLC operating agreement specify the duties of managers in North Carolina?
Yes, an LLC operating agreement can specify the duties of managers in North Carolina.
Can a manager of an LLC be a nonresident of North Carolina?
Yes, a manager of an LLC can be a nonresident of North Carolina.
How are non-competition clauses treated in LLC operating agreements in North Carolina?
Non-competition clauses in LLC operating agreements in North Carolina are subject to the same restrictions as non-competition agreements in employment contracts.
Can an LLC in North Carolina be a benefit corporation?
Yes, an LLC can choose to be a benefit corporation in North Carolina.
Must an LLC get a business licence in North Carolina?
LLCs must procure the licenses and permits required to operate their businesses in North Carolina.

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Conclusion

Having a well-drafted LLC Operating Agreement in place is crucial for the success and protection of your North Carolina LLC. It provides a clear framework for the ownership, management, and operation of your business, helping to prevent disputes and ensure compliance with state law. It is highly recommended to consult with legal and tax professionals when drafting and executing your operating agreement to ensure it meets your specific needs and complies with all applicable laws and regulations.

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