LLC Operating Agreement: Everything You Need To Know

In the business realm, where numerous entities carve their niche, Limited Liability Companies (LLCs) hold a significant place due to their versatile structure. An LLC offers the operational flexibility of a partnership or a sole proprietorship while shielding its owners, referred to as ‘members,’ from personal liability for the company’s debts. Underpinning this business structure is a critical document known as the LLC Operating Agreement. Let’s delve into an LLC Operating Agreement’s importance, use, and structure!

What is an LLC Operating Agreement

An LLC Operating Agreement, or an LLC partnership agreement, is a legal document establishing the terms and conditions under which an LLC will operate. It outlines the financial and functional decisions of the LLC, including rules, regulations, and provisions. This document is critical in stipulating the working relationships among the members and their shared obligations, thereby preventing potential disagreements or misunderstandings about management and profit sharing.

How Does an LLC Operating Agreement Work?

An operating agreement, precisely an LLC Operating Agreement, is a foundational document that outlines the functional and financial decisions of a Limited Liability Company (LLC). Predominantly, it sets the company’s rules and procedures to follow during the LLC’s existence. It defines each member’s roles, responsibilities, and rights, the decision-making process, what happens when a member leaves or a new one enters, dispute resolution mechanisms, and the pathway to dissolution or winding up. By tailoring the LLC’s operation to its members’ precise needs, an operating agreement offers an effective way of setting the ground rules for the company.

Starting an LLC is the first step towards owning a structured business, but remember, it’s the LLC Operating Agreement that guides every step thereafter, shaping the path of a successful business!


Contents of an LLC Operating Agreement


While the exact content of an LLC Operating Agreement may vary depending on the specific needs of your business, traditional aspects are universally included. You can use a professional service, such as LegalZoom, that offers an Operating Agreement template to better grasp it for greater convenience.

Article I: Formation of the LLC

The first step in creating an LLC Operating Agreement is to outline the basic information about your LLC, such as:

  • Name of the LLC: Your LLC’s name must include the words “Limited Liability Company” or the abbreviation “LLC” or “L.L.C.” and comply with the LLC naming requirements.
  • Principal Office Address: This is where your LLC’s primary business activities will be conducted.
  • Purpose of the LLC: This section should describe the primary purpose of your LLC and the types of business activities it will engage in.
  • Registered Agent Information: Your Registered Agent is a person or entity designated to receive legal documents on behalf of your LLC. The Registered Agent must have a physical street address. It’s essential to choose a reliable and responsible Registered Agent, as failure to receive and respond to legal documents can have serious consequences for you to start a business.

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Article II: Members and Ownership

This part concerns identifying all LLC members and their ownership percentages. It contains information such as each member’s name, address, and donation. Details about how increases and decreases in membership are also covered in this section.

  • Initial Members: The names and addresses of each initial member should be listed, along with their respective ownership interests.
  • Ownership Interests: This section should detail each member’s ownership interest percentage.
  • Capital Contributions: Each member’s initial capital contribution to the LLC should be documented, along with any additional contributions that may be required.
  • Additional Members: The agreement should outline the process for admitting new members to the LLC and the rights and responsibilities of these new members.
  • Transfer of Membership Interests: The operating agreement should contain provisions governing the transfer of membership interests, including transfer restrictions and the right of first refusal for existing members.
  • Withdrawal of Members: The process and consequences for members who wish to withdraw from the LLC should be clearly defined.

Article III: Distribution of Profits and Losses

This article describes how the revenues and losses of the LLC will be allocated among the members. It can be based on ownership percentages or another arrangement agreed upon by the participants. It outlines the distribution mechanism as well as any constraints on such releases.

  • Allocation of Profits and Losses: The agreement should detail how profits and losses will be allocated among the members, typically based on their own interests.
  • Distributions to Members: The process for distributing profits to members should be outlined, including the timing and manner of distributions.

Article IV: Management Structure

Your LLC Operating Agreement should outline the management structure of your business. This includes

Member-Managed vs. Manager-Managed: You must decide whether your LLC will be managed by its members or appointed managers. This decision will impact the roles and responsibilities of each party.

A Member-Managed LLC is a type of limited liability company (LLC) where the management and day-to-day operations of the business are handled by its members (owners) directly. In a Member-Managed LLC, each member has the authority to make decisions and take actions on behalf of the company, such as entering into contracts, hiring employees, and managing the finances.

This management structure contrasts with a Manager-Managed LLC, where the members appoint one or more managers to oversee the business operations. In a Manager-Managed LLC, the appointed managers have the authority to make decisions and act on behalf of the company. In contrast, the members typically have a more passive role, focusing on high-level decision-making and strategic planning.

Roles and Responsibilities of Members/Managers: The agreement should define the roles and responsibilities of each member or manager, including their duties, decision-making authority, and any limitations on their powers.

Article V: Meetings and Voting Procedures

This section describes the methods for holding meetings and voting. It outlines the quorum needed for decision-making, how votes are tabulated, and how members are notified about meetings. It also contains details on special meetings and emergency decisions.

  • Voting Rights and Decision-Making Process: The agreement should outline each member or manager’s voting rights and decision-making for various business matters.
  • Meetings and Notice Requirements: The operating agreement should specify the frequency of meetings, the process for calling special meetings, and the notice requirements for each type of meeting.

Article VI: Limitation of Liability and Indemnification

To safeguard the personal assets of your LLC’s members and management, your operating agreement should include the following provisions:

  • Liability of Members/Managers: The agreement should limit the liability of members and managers for the debts and obligations of the LLC.
  • Indemnification Provisions: The operating agreement should include provisions for indemnifying members and managers for actions taken on behalf of the LLC, as long as those actions are within the scope of their duties and do not involve gross negligence or willful misconduct.
  • Insurance Requirements: The agreement should specify any insurance requirements for your LLC, such as liability or property insurance. Small business insurance helps safeguard your business from financial losses, legal claims, and other unforeseen events.

You may check out the Best Small Business Insurance to learn more about business insurance.

Article VII: Record Keeping and Financial Reporting

This article describes the record-keeping and financial auditing procedures in depth. It emphasizes the significance of maintaining complete and accurate records of an LLC’s financial transactions. It also sets the frequency with which financial reports are produced and distributed to members.

  • Accounting and Recordkeeping: The operating agreement should outline your LLC’s accounting methods and recordkeeping requirements. Effective financial management is important for the success of your LLC. Establish a reliable accounting system to track income, expenses, and tax obligations.
  • Fiscal Year: The agreement should specify the fiscal year for your LLC, which may be either a calendar year or any 12-month period.
  • Tax Treatment and Filing Requirements: The agreement should specify your LLC’s tax treatment and any required filings with the tax authorities. You should include the filing of the formation documents, annual fees, and other associated fees that need to be filed.

For the initial and final cost for forming your LLC, look up the LLC Cost for additional information.

Article VIII: Dissolution and Winding Up

This section covers the situations under which the LLC may be dissolved, such as a unanimous resolution by members, legal issues, bankruptcy, or achieving its objective. It also details how the LLC’s assets will be sold and obligations paid upon dissolution.

Events Triggering Dissolution: The agreement should list the events that will trigger the dissolution of your LLC, such as the death or withdrawal of a member, a unanimous vote of the members, or a court order.

Some common events include:

  • A unanimous vote of the members to dissolve the business.
  • The death, resignation, or withdrawal of a member unless the remaining members agree to continue the business.
  • The expiration of a specified period or the completion of a specific purpose, as outlined in the operating agreement.
  • A court order mandating the dissolution of the LLC.

Winding Up Process: The operating agreement should outline the process for winding up the affairs of the LLC, which typically involves:

  • Settling the company’s outstanding debts and obligations.
  • Liquidating the company’s assets.
  • Resolving any pending legal disputes.
  • Preparing and filing final tax returns.

Distribution of Assets: The operating agreement should specify how the LLC’s remaining assets will be distributed among the members upon dissolution, typically in proportion to their ownership interests.

Certificate of Cancellation: After the winding-up process is completed, the LLC may be required to file a certificate of cancellation or articles of dissolution with the Secretary of State to formally dissolve the company and remove it from its records.

Article IX: Dispute Resolution

This article outlines the procedure for resolving disputes among LLC members. It may include provisions for mediation or arbitration in the event of a dispute. A method for addressing member issues, such as mediation or arbitration, should be included in the agreement.

Article X: Amendments and Modifications

Your LLC Operating Agreement should include a procedure for making changes and adjustments. The procedure for proposing, considering, and approving revisions to the operating agreement should be outlined in the agreement. It should also state the percentage of member approval needed to change the operating agreement.

After drafting your LLC Operating Agreement, it should be signed by the initial members or management and adopted by any further members who join the LLC.

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Importance of an LLC Operating Agreement

An LLC Operating Agreement articulates the operational and financial arrangements among the members and serves as a cornerstone in establishing an LLC. Its importance extends into multiple aspects of business operations and management, each critical.

  • Provides Operational Structure: Not all LLCs operate in the same manner. An LLC agreement enables each company to structure its operations to serve its unique needs. It clearly defines the members’ roles, responsibilities, duties, and powers, helping avoid internal conflicts.
  • Legal Protection: An operating agreement legally enforces the limited liability feature of an LLC. It helps protect each member’s personal assets from being used to settle business debts or liabilities by solidifying the separation between the business and its owners.
  • Clears Ambiguity: It eliminates the possibility of misunderstandings and misinterpretations by spelling out members’ initial contributions, ownership structure, profit and loss distribution, and voting rights, providing a clear road map on how to manage business operations.
  • Comes Handy in Dispute Resolution: Disputes and disagreements are inevitable in any business. An operating agreement can help resolve internal disputes more clearly and structure by specifying dispute-resolution provisions.
  • Prepares for the Future: It also outlines procedures for adding or removing members, handling the death or incapacitation of a member, and dissolving the LLC. This future-proof planning can help the company navigate changes more smoothly.
  • Overrules State’s Default Rules: State statutes govern the LLC without an operating agreement, which may not always align with the intended business operations. An operating agreement allows you to supersede these default rules, offering greater flexibility in customizing your LLC’s operations.

Take away? Regardless of whether an LLC has one member or multiple members, the importance of having an operating agreement at the outset of a business cannot be overstated. It provides legal protection, operational clarity, and foresight for future issues and serves the company’s and its members’ overall best interests.

After Completing an Operating Agreement

Completing an Operating Agreement is a significant step in forming your LLC. However, several crucial actions need to be taken after finalizing this document.

1. Get Approval

Ensure that all members have thoroughly reviewed the Operating Agreement. Once every member agrees, each one should sign the document. This ratifies it, and the regulations within become legally binding.

2. Distribute Copies

After signing, distribute a copy of the finalized operating agreement to each member. Ensure everyone has a copy for their personal records. Keeping the original document safe is pertinent, as with other essential business records.

3. State Filing

Some states require you to file your Operating Agreement with the secretary of state or relevant state agency. Check with your state’s regulations to see if this is required. If it is, comply with any related requirements or procedures.

4. Implement Agreement

Start implementing the terms of your Operating Agreement. These include managing duties, profit and loss distributions, and anything else defined in the document. Your business operations should align with the terms outlined in the agreement.

5. Open a Business Bank Account

Use your Operating Agreement to open a business bank account. Having a separate bank account for your business is critical to maintaining the separation between the company’s finances and the personal finances of members. You can check out the Best Bank For Small Businesses if you are wondering where to open one.

6. Consistent Review

Regularly review and update the Operating Agreement as your business evolves. This is especially necessary when the company structure changes, when a new member is added, or when a member exits. Updates should be documented, approved, and signed by all members.

7. Legal and Accounting Assistance

Lastly, establish relationships with legal and accounting professionals. They can guide you to ensure your LLC complies with state regulations and requirements and assist with tax planning and filings.

An Operating Agreement is not a ‘write-and-forget’ document; it is the blueprint for your business operations and should be treated as a living document that grows with your business.

How to Write an Operating Agreement?

Writing an Operating Agreement is a fundamental process that lays the groundwork for a structured, well-functioning limited liability company (LLC). The first step involves creating a detailed outline of your agreement, encapsulating key areas such as the members’ names, contribution and ownership percentage, rights and responsibilities, and how the company will be managed. Delineate how profits, losses, and distributions will be allocated among the members. If the LLC is manager-managed, define the powers, duties, obligations, and limitations bestowed onto the manager.

In further detailing the agreement, it’s crucial to articulate the procedural guidelines for voting, decision-making, meetings, and handling disputes. Also, draft provisions for all foreseeable contingencies – what happens if a member wishes to leave or a new one wants to join if a member passes away or becomes incapacitated, and if the company needs to be dissolved.

Furthermore, most operating agreements include clauses for the transfer of ownership, amendment of the agreement, and specifications concerning annual reports and records. Always remember the complexity of your operating agreement will largely depend on the LLC’s size and the number of members involved. Getting your draft reviewed by a legal professional to ensure its completeness and conformity to state laws is highly recommended.


What is an LLC Operating Agreement?

An LLC Operating Agreement is a legal document that outlines how a Limited Liability Company (LLC) will function. It sets out the rights, responsibilities, and obligations of the LLC members.

Does the law require an LLC Operating Agreement?

Not all states require an LLC to have an operating agreement, but it’s highly recommended to have one, even for single-member LLCs, to clarify the operational procedures and offer liability protection.

When should an LLC create an Operating Agreement?

Ideally, an Operating Agreement should be established at the inception of the LLC.

Who needs to sign the LLC Operating Agreement?

All members of the LLC should sign the Operating Agreement.

What happens if there is no Operating Agreement?

Without an Operating Agreement, an LLC would be governed by the state’s default rules, which may not benefit the LLC’s operations or its members.

Can the operating agreement be changed?

Yes, amendments can be made to an operating agreement, but usually, they require approval from all LLC members.

What information is required in an Operating Agreement?

The agreement typically includes details such as the members’ names, ownership percentages, capital contributions, decision-making and dispute resolution processes, distribution of profits and losses, and rules for member withdrawal or addition.

Do banks need an Operating Agreement to open a business account for the LLC?

Usually, yes. Most banks require a copy of the Operating Agreement to open a business bank account for an LLC.

Does a single-member LLC need an Operating Agreement?

A single-member LLC should have an Operating Agreement to protect liability and define the company structure.

How is an Operating Agreement different from the Articles of Organization?

The Articles of Organization is a document filed with the state to form the LLC legally. The Operating Agreement, however, outlines the internal functioning of the LLC.

Who can draft an LLC Operating Agreement?

Although it’s advisable to have an attorney draft or review your Operating Agreement, members of the LLC can technically create one themselves.

Should an Operating Agreement be filed with the state?

Some states require you to file your Operating Agreement, but not all. You should check with your state’s specific requirements.

How can disputes between LLC members be resolved?

The Operating Agreement should include a dispute resolution section outlining the process for handling member disputes.

What is the role of an Operating Agreement in asset protection?

The Operating Agreement helps maintain the separation between the company’s operations and the personal assets of its members, thus offering protection against entity liabilities.

How to divide profit and loss in an LLC?

The Operating Agreement must specify how profits and losses will be divided among the members.

Does the Operational Agreement expire?

No, the Operational Agreement does not expire. However, it should be updated to reflect business, membership, or law changes.

What happens if a member leaves the LLC?

The Operating Agreement should include provisions for such a situation, outlining the process for buying out a member’s interest or dissolving the LLC.

Can an Operating Agreement be verbal?

While theoretically possible, a written Operating Agreement is always recommended to avoid misunderstandings and to have a legally binding document.

How many copies of the Operating Agreement should be made?

Every member of the LLC should have a copy of the Operating Agreement and an additional copy should be kept with important business documents.

Does the Operating Agreement need to be notarized?

While notarizing the agreement isn’t typically required, it might strengthen its validity.

How to Write an Operating Agreement

So, how do you go about writing an operating agreement? While the specifics may vary depending on your business structure and needs, there are some key components that every operating agreement should include.

First and foremost, you need to outline the ownership structure of the business. This includes detailing who the owners are, how much each owner has invested, and what percentage of the business they own. Clearly defining ownership interests helps prevent disputes and misunderstandings down the line.

Next, you should outline the management structure of the business. This includes specifying how decisions will be made, who has the authority to make those decisions, and how day-to-day operations will be managed. Clearly defining management roles and responsibilities helps streamline operations and maintain business efficiency.

Another important aspect of an operating agreement is outlining the financial arrangements of the business. This includes detailing how profits and losses will be shared among owners, how capital contributions will be made, and how distributions will be handled. Having clear financial guidelines in place helps ensure fairness and transparency among owners.

Additionally, it’s crucial to include provisions for dispute resolution in your operating agreement. Disputes are an inevitable part of any business, so it’s essential to have a mechanism in place for resolving conflicts. This can include mediation, arbitration, or other methods of dispute resolution to help keep the business running smoothly.

Furthermore, consider including clauses that address the process for adding or removing members from the business, as well as what happens in the event of a member’s death or disability. Having clear guidelines for member changes helps maintain stability and continuity within the business.

Finally, it’s important to consult with legal professionals when drafting an operating agreement. An experienced attorney can help ensure that your operating agreement complies with state laws, addresses all relevant issues, and provides adequate protection for your business and its members. Investing in a well-crafted operating agreement can save you time, money, and headaches in the long run.

In conclusion, writing an operating agreement is a critical step in establishing and maintaining a successful business. By clearly outlining ownership, management, financial, and legal provisions, you can help ensure the smooth operation of your business and minimize conflicts among owners. Consult with legal professionals to ensure that your operating agreement is comprehensive and legally sound. By taking the time to craft a solid operating agreement, you can set your business up for long-term success.


Despite not being a mandatory document in many states, an LLC Operating Agreement is an undeniably valuable asset every LLC should possess. Whether it’s about managing disputes, maintaining professional relationships, safeguarding personal assets, or just structuring your LLC as per your specifications, an operating agreement compasses it all. Consulting with an experienced attorney or utilizing comprehensive online tools can help ensure that your LLC Operating Agreement is thorough, accurate and affords your business the maximum protection possible.

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